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Table 2 Results of electromyographic evaluation of various muscles by exercise forms

From: A study of passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise effects on local muscles and whole body oxidative metabolism: a comparison with simulated horse riding, bicycle, and walking exercise

  Intensity Rectus Femoris Gastrocnemius Rectus abdominis Erector spinae
Passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise 0.8 Hz 2.14 ± 0.43 * 1.09 ± 0.13 1.89 ± 0.48 1.64 ± 0.13
  1.2 Hz 3.33 ± 0.65** 1.45 ± 0.19 2.16 ± 0.61 1.93 ± 0.19
  1.6 Hz 4.63 ± 0.69 1.90 ± 0.22 2.69 ± 0.76 2.82 ± 0.36
Simulated horse riding exercise 0.8 Hz 1.08 ± 0.41 0.75 ± 0.07 1.58 ± 0.18 2.13 ± 0.54
  1.2 Hz 1.29 ± 0.33 1.15 ± 0.20 1.91 ± 0.18 2.47 ± 0.38
  1.4 Hz 1.55 ± 0.19 1.27 ± 0.25 1.99 ± 0.29 2.77 ± 0.42
Bicycle exercise 20 watts 2.62 ± 0.65 5.85 ± 1.34 1.59 ± 0.10 2.11 ± 0.30
  40 watts 3.50 ± 0.76 5.82 ± 1.25 1.83 ± 0.23 2.79 ± 0.50
  60 watts 4.27 ± 0.88 5.88 ± 1.23 1.99 ± 0.20 3.36 ± 0.47
  80 watts 4.80 ± 1.11 # 6.07 ± 1.19 2.20 ± 0.38 4.19 ± 1.21
Walking exercise 2 km/h 2.04 ± 0.32 6.61 ± 1.01 1.62 ± 0.13 7.96 ± 0.92
  3 km/h 2.26 ± 0.40 7.30 ± 0.87 1.61 ± 0.12 8.12 ± 1.39
  4 km/h 2.95 ± 0.34 8.15 ± 1.09 1.82 ± 0.11 7.62 ± 0.59
  5 km/h 3.64 ± 0.49 9.19 ± 1.21 1.89 ± 0.15 8.13 ± 0.71
  6 km/h 5.15 ± 0.73 # 10.2 ± 1.51 2.18 ± 0.18 9.24 ± 0.91
(Mean ± SE)
(Unit: % max activation)
  1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, simulated horse riding exercise (SHRE) vs passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise (PWLLE) (0.8 Hz vs 0.8 Hz, 1.2 Hz vs 1.2 Hz, 1.4 Hz vs 1.6 Hz)
  2. #The nearest value of PWLLE (1.6 Hz) at rectus femoris