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Table 2 Comparative analyses of high energy phosphate levels in younger and older adults prior to and following creatine supplementation

From: The effects of age on skeletal muscle and the phosphocreatine energy system: can creatine supplementation help older adults

Variable Young baseline†‡ Old baseline†‡ Significance Theoretical results in young following supplementation Theoretical results in old following supplementation Potential statistical impact
TCr 124.6 ± 2.7 129.8 ± 4.0 < 0.001§ 151.6 ± 2.7 149.1 ± 4.1 0.005 *
PCr 78.2 ± 2.3 78.4 ± 4.1 0.66 88.6 ± 2.3 84.8 ± 4.2 < 0.001 *
Cr 46.0 ± 2.3 51.4 ± 3.8 < 0.001§ 64.1 ± 2.3 65.8 ± 3.9 0.03 *
ATP 24.0 ± 0.6 20.0 ± 0.6 < 0.001§ 25.0 ± 0.61 21.4 ± 0.61 < 0.001 *
  1. Baseline and theoretical values are presented as mean ± pooled S.E. values and were derived from Table 1.
  2. TCr = Total creatine
  3. PCr = Phosphocreatine
  4. Cr = Creatine
  5. ATP = Adenosine triphosphate
  6. Younger participants were between the ages of 18-36 years old, whereas older participants were between the ages of 52-79 years old.
  7. All of the referenced interventions supplemented subjects either through a loading phase (i.e., 20 g/d for 5 days) or through a 14-to-24 week supplementation protocol using 5 g/d.
  8. §= Significant difference between young and old, p < 0.05.
  9. * = Signifies a theoretical significant difference between young and old, p < 0.05.