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Table 1 Outcome measures for individuals with CFS alone; CFS-MCS; CFS-FM; or CFS-MCS-FM

From: Functioning in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome: increased impairment with co-occurring multiple chemical sensitivity and fibromyalgia

Outcome Measure CFS alone (n = 50) CFS-MCS (n = 27) CFS-FM (n = 18) CFS-MCS-FM (n = 19)
Mean (Standard Deviation)     
MOS-SF-36     
   Physical Functioning 53.61 (25.05)a 42.50 (19.66) 40.56 (23.69) 32.89 (19.95)a
   Role-Physical 4.69 (12.27) 3.85 (11.60) 4.17 (12.86) 3.95 (12.54)
   Bodily Pain 49.83 (21.88)a,c 40.62 (21.63)b 30.00 (13.18)c 21.58 (18.60)a, b
   General Health 36.65 (16.74)a 28.75 (15.94) 38.54 (16.62)b 19.95 (32.24)a, b
   Vitality 20.73 (15.98) 15.19 (12.84) 19.72 (16.31) 11.32 (9.84)
   Social Functioning 46.09 (25.15)a 30.29 (21.84)a 47.22 (23.70) 30.26 (19.68)
   Role-Emotional 56.74 (45.00) 47.44 (45.39) 42.59 (35.80) 57.89 (41.34)
   Mental Health 67.08 (16.30) 55.85 (19.35) 66.22 (14.79) 62.11 (18.10)
Brief COPE     
   Self Distraction 2.30 (0.87)a, b 2.91 (0.81)b 2.89 (0.88) 3.18 (0.65)a
   Active Coping 2.97 (0.84) 3.15 (0.83) 3.28 (0.73) 3.10 (0.88)
   Denial 1.41 (0.85) 1.28 (0.59) 1.25 (0.35) 1.32 (0.61)
   Substance Use 1.15 (0.47) 1.22 (0.63) 1.53 (0.98) 1.24 (0.42)
   Emotional Support 2.40 (0.95) 2.17 (0.91) 2.56 (0.97) 2.29 (0.85)
   Instrumental Support 2.32 (0.96) 2.61 (0.93) 2.78 (0.75) 2.66 (0.99)
   Behavioral Disengagement 1.33 (0.51) 1.27 (0.38) 1.47 (0.44) 1.47 (0.94)
   Venting 1.93 (0.63) 2.09 (0.77) 2.39 (0.65) 2.11 (.077)
   Positive Reframing 2.20 (1.06) 2.28 (0.94) 2.75 (0.96) 2.53 (1.05)
   Planning 2.97 (0.97) 3.00 (0.98) 3.00 (0.86) 3.03 (0.86)
   Humor 1.68 (0.79)a 1.78 (0.87) 2.39 (1.20)a 1.79 (0.77)
   Acceptance 2.95 (0.88) 2.81 (0.83) 2.94 (0.75) 2.95 (0.80)
   Religion 2.41 (1.01) 2.44 (0.97) 2.31 (1.06) 2.47 (1.05)
   Self Blame 1.69 (0.87) 1.74 (0.75) 2.00 (0.77) 1.92 (0.79)
Beck Depression Inventory 16.47 (8.61)a 20.88 (9.64) 18.50 (9.54) 23.93 (11.43)a
Fatigue Severity Scale 5.98 (0.68) 6.35 (0.66)a 5.70 (1.22)a 6.30 (0.53)
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index 7.26 (2.53)a 8.69 (2.20) 8.94 (2.10) 8.95 (2.39)a
Brief Pain Inventory     
   Interference 2.83 (2.52)a, c,d 4.56 (2.78)b, c 5.36 (1.96)d 6.80 (2.33)a, b
   Severity 3.03 (2.06)a, c 4.06 (2.02)b 4.86 (1.40)c 6.10 (2.04)a, b
Symptoms     
   Sore Throat 23.50 (26.61) 29.48 (26.97) 20.56 (26.40) 24.84 (28.82)
   Tender Lymph Nodes 25.75 (30.36) 23.40 (26.33) 27.50 (33.79) 32.00 (27.92)
   Muscle Pain 50.52 (28.34)a, b 60.76 (28.22) 72.92 (22.56)b 78.42 (24.97)a
   Joint Pain 31.85 (33.25)a, c 46.04 (35.95)b 63.06 (32.18)c 75.50 (24.54)a, b
   Impaired Memory 62.96 (25.22) 59.63 (23.82) 65.14 (25.53) 68.94 (22.65)
   Unrefreshing Sleep 76.89 (18.89) 75.19 (25.43) 89.67 (10.86) 87.03 (14.46)
   Post-Exertional Malaise 73.27 (17.84) 75.19 (19.16) 74.86 (23.74) 82.36 (14.10)
   Headaches 42.91 (33.39)a 56.87 (30.50) 55.00 (31.44) 74.03 (24.39)a
Six Minute Walk Test     
   Distance Walked (feet) 1419.47 (312.17) 1728.08 (2387.62) 1304.28 (356.492) 1221.39 (239.23)
   Average RPE 9.85 (2.24)a 10.56 (2.08) 11.37 (2.76) 11.78 (2.42)a
Sit and Reach (inches) 13.48 (3.54) 13.16 (4.49) 14.55 (4.24) 13.40 (3.77)
Hand Grip (pounds)     
   Right 64.45 (24.67) 61.57 (21.21) 64.19 (21.87) 52.28 (15.34)
   Left 60.04 (22.71) 58.63 (17.90) 58.72 (20.71) 48.07 (17.21)
Actigraphy Mean 161.35 (58.55) 145.74 (58.13) 167.23 (48.51) 149.78 (63.12)
Lifetime Axis I Diagnosis % 21 (42.0%) 10 (37.0%) 6 (33.3%) 6 (31.6%)
Current Axis I Diagnosis % 17 (34.0%) 5 (18.5%) 7 (38.9%) 6 (31.6%)
  1. Similar letters across diagnostic groups significantly differ at the p < .05 level.